Alex is editor in chief of Bodyketosis, an author, low-carb enthusiast and a recovering chubby guy who reclaimed his health using the ketogenic lifestyle. The need for the keto life began after his aunt and cousin were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and he was next in line. Through personal experience and extensive scientific research, Alex offers insightful tips for everything keto.
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Dr. Ryan P. Lowery is the CEO of Ketogenic.com, author of The Ketogenic Bible, President of the Applied Science and Performance Institute and KetoPhD™. His mission  is to spread awareness around the Ketogenic Lifestyle and its’ many benefits beyond body composition. He earned his BS and MS in exercise physiology and exercise and nutrition science from the University of Tampa and completed his doctorate work at Concordia University in Health and Human Performance with a focus on “The Effects of a Well-Formulated Ketogenic Diet and Exogenous Ketone Supplementation on Various Markers of Health and Body Composition in Healthy and Diseased Populations.” Over his career, Ryan has published over 150 papers, abstracts, and book chapters on human performance and sports nutrition and has dedicated his life to educating the masses. In his free time, Ryan enjoys spending time with his best friend, Scoot the Keto Pup, jet skiing, and traveling around the world. The way to his heart is through a good glass of wine and Keto desserts.
We’ve all seen it on food labels: “Only 2 net carbs” or “Low net carbs.” But what does this truly mean? What are net carbs, and why does it matter? Are all net carbs created equal, or are we stretching those claims a bit too much? After reading through this article, I think you will agree that there is a pressing need to educate on the precise definition of net carbs, and what exactly constitutes a true fiber.
Psyllium husk is a type of fiber commonly used as a gentle, bulk-forming laxative. With no net carbs and a whopping 7 grams of fiber per two tablespoon serving, ground psyllium is an easy way to increase fiber intake on the keto diet. “It works great as a binding agent in recipes,” Yule says. “Just make sure to consume it with plenty of water, coconut water, or juice to avoid dehydration.” Add a tablespoon to your beverage, and you’re good to go.

I’m not sure who determined that egg nog is a recipe that only comes around during the holidays, but whoever they are shouldn’t be allowed to make anymore decisions. This is now one of my favorite beverages and seems like an awfully good way to end any night of the year. It’s thick, it’s rich, it’s creamy and low carb, does it get any better? Regardless of whether you are an eggnog drinker, you’ll want to make this keto eggnog for your friends and family this holiday season!  **Cooked Eggnog: If you prefer to cook your egg nog, you can first heat your heavy cream and flax milk in a saucepan, remove from heat and slowly whisk in the lightened color yolks and swerve mixture, and the peaked whites. Once fully combined return to heat and heat through once more prior to chilling. 
Low in carbs and high in fiber, lupini beans (aka lupin beans) are perfect for those on keto who are looking for a high-protein, high-fiber snack. Never heard of them? This yellow legume is hot on the heels of the edamame and fava bean as an on-trend nibble for the health-conscious consumer.  One cup of cooked lupini beans contains 4.6 grams of fiber—about 19% of the recommended daily value. However, ready-to-eat branded lupini bean snacks often contain even more. “I've noticed that the amount of carbs/fiber can vary greatly between lupini bean brands,” says Yule. “To make sure that you are choosing a food that is keto-friendly, be sure to check the label.”
A close relative of maltose is a molecule known as isomaltose (typically found in items such as beer and honey). The biggest difference between maltose and isomaltose is that isomaltose is joined together by an α-1,6 chemical bond, rather than an α-1,4 chemical bond. Scientists suspected that by adding a certain enzyme (transglucosidase) to high maltose syrup, they could change the bonds from α-1,4 to α-1,6, thereby making it more resistant to being broken down by the enzymes, as described above, when compared to maltose. Again, while this sounds excellent in theory, it is not necessarily what happens in our bodies. In fact, isomaltose (and thus, IMO syrups used in some of these products) is broken down by certain enzymes on the brush border of the small intestine.[2] Though the α-1,6 bond breaks down slower compared to the α-1,4 bond, these IMO syrups, which often use a blend of di-and oligosaccharides, ultimately metabolize into small amounts of glucose and maltose[2] and thus should be viewed as a slow digesting carbohydrate rather than a true fiber.
Lastly, one of the advertised benefits of IMO is possible prebiotic activity. Prebiotics are critical, as they feed the beneficial bacteria in our digestive system, specifically in the large intestine. These bacteria have several amazing functions, such as lowering body fat, improving insulin sensitivity, and lowering depression. Two “gold standard” prebiotics in the industry are inulin and fructooligosaccharides (FOS). Inulin and FOS are non-digestible carbohydrates that robustly increase beneficial bacteria. The challenge, however, is that both inulin and FOS, due to their rapid digestibility by intestinal bacteria, result in low gastric tolerance, and, ultimately, gastric distress. Additionally, inulin and FOS, when added to protein bars or other goods, may degrade over time into individual sugar units. Regardless, one study comparing inulin to IMOs, found that the prebiotic activity in inulin is 14 times greater than that of IMOs.[4] This is logical because, as you recall from above, approximately 70% to 90% of IMOs are digested. As such, only a small portion of these prebiotic fibers make it to the large intestine, in which two out of three studies have demonstrated that this small portion may indeed have some prebiotic effects.
One study compared the glycemic response of SCF to the glycemic response of glucose in 12 healthy adults during a randomized, controlled, crossover study.[6] The findings of this study revealed that SCF had a significantly lower incremental glucose and insulin response than that of the glucose control. Additionally, another study observed a significant lowering effect on postprandial (during or after food consumption) blood glucose and insulin (coinciding with an increase in fat oxidation) upon consumption of 55 grams of SCF in 18 overweight adults, compared to a full calorie control.
A lot of people on the Keto diet take their vacation as a way to splurge and eat whatever you want. It’s important to realize that your body isn’t used to the old way of eating, it’s used to Keto. So, yes – you will most likely gain weight back, and gain it back very quickly. Just make sure you know that what you eat matters. If you are going to have treats, then it helps to make sure that 90-95% of what you are eating is Keto friendly and then include your treats in the other 10% of what you are eating. This will help with the getting to carried away eating non keto foods. 
It can be hard to eat at a restaurant and understanding what everything is made out of. One of the most basic things you can do is stick to the basics. Most people on the Keto diet don’t eat bread, pasta, or rice…easy enough. Of course, staying away from items that are heavy in sugar in carbs is also a good idea. Most people can look at a traditional dish and gauge whether something has a lot of carbs or not.

First off, there’s the taste. Consumers want to have their cake and eat it too. At the end of the day, if the sweet indulgence tastes more like a bar of chalk, then there is a high probability that consumers will not be running out to buy it. In my opinion, most companies have nailed this aspect down to some degree. The majority of bars, cookies, or other low-carb snacks that I have tried actually taste really good. However, even if a product can meet the consumer standards with respect to taste and quality, the true separation occurs at the level of fiber source. The buzz words “high-fiber” and “low net carbs” are exploding in today’s society. Thus, companies are attempting to find ways in which they can add fiber to their products, thereby boosting their nutritional profile and simultaneously decreasing the number of net carbs. This now prompts the question: are all fiber sources nutritionally the same, and if not, what does this mean for the consumer?

Alex is editor in chief of Bodyketosis, an author, low-carb enthusiast and a recovering chubby guy who reclaimed his health using the ketogenic lifestyle. The need for the keto life began after his aunt and cousin were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and he was next in line. Through personal experience and extensive scientific research, Alex offers insightful tips for everything keto.
As observed by the graphs above, in contrast to the IMOs in which blood glucose rapidly increased to 125 mg/dL, SCF did not elicit any blood glucose response.[9] In addition, while insulin was elevated during the IMO condition, it actually tended to go down in the SCF condition! Despite the results from the blood glucose and insulin responses, the breath hydrogen assay will distinguish which is a “true fiber.” Our data below clearly indicates that SCF indeed passes into the large intestine, as indicated by the large breath hydrogen response. In stark contrast, IMOs do not.
One of the first studies to examine IMO syrups[2] had six subjects consume 25 grams of IMO syrup. These researchers found that glucose levels increased from 109 mg/dL pre-ingestion to a peak of 136 mg/dL 30 min post-ingestion. Additionally, insulin rose to nearly parallel levels with that of glucose from 4.8 μU/mL pre-ingestion to nearly 32 μU/mL at 30 min post-ingestion. These values clearly indicate that some digestion is occurring. Furthermore, these researchers found that IMO was about 83% as digestible as maltose under resting conditions and about 69% as digestible after the exercise period. Taken together, this suggests that a large majority of the carbohydrate in the IMO syrup was, in fact, digested, absorbed, and metabolized.

You may need to skip the cake, or at least limit your intake of sweets and carb-heavy vegetables. Know your body and do what makes you feel best. If you don’t think you will be able to get back on the Keto Diet comfortably after having a “cheat day” or “cheat vacation,” then perhaps it might be best to continue eating a strictly Keto-friendly diet.
If you are aware of what you’re eating throughout the day, you can better plan for indulgences. When traveling to a place that is known for their cuisine, enjoy eating while remaining balanced about your diet. Instead of getting a sweet all to yourself, maybe share it with whoever you are going. By sampling small portions of food, instead of overeating till you feel sick, you can enjoy your vacation food while still keeping your Keto Diet in mind. Alternatively, be sure to get as much exercise as possible (walk to destinations instead of taking a bus or driving), and the extra exertion will help use up any extra calories (or carbs) that you may eat.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) advises getting 25 to 31 g of fiber a day, depending on age and gender. Following a keto diet food list doesn’t mean it’s impossible to get what you need, but you have to remain diligent and determined to make it happen, says Keri Glassman, RD, who is in private practice in New York City. There are many fiber-rich foods that contain a low amount of net carbs (total carbs minus fiber) and that won’t kick you out of ketosis — which is the metabolic state that makes keto work. Here are 10:
Important Disclaimer: The information contained on Bodyketosis is intended for informational and educational purposes only. Any statements made on this website have not been evaluated by the FDA and any information or products discussed are not intended to diagnose, cure, treat or prevent any disease or illness. Please consult a healthcare practitioner before making changes to your diet or taking supplements that may interfere with medications.
Louise holds a Bachelors and Masters in Natural Sciences from Cambridge University (UK). She attended Columbia University for her JD and practiced law at Debevoise & Plimpton before co-founding Louise's Foods, Paleo Living Magazine, Nourishing Brands, & CoBionic. Louise has considerable research experience but enjoys creating products and articles that help move people just a little bit closer toward a healthy life they love. You can find her on Facebook or LinkedIn.
If you are aware of what you’re eating throughout the day, you can better plan for indulgences. When traveling to a place that is known for their cuisine, enjoy eating while remaining balanced about your diet. Instead of getting a sweet all to yourself, maybe share it with whoever you are going. By sampling small portions of food, instead of overeating till you feel sick, you can enjoy your vacation food while still keeping your Keto Diet in mind. Alternatively, be sure to get as much exercise as possible (walk to destinations instead of taking a bus or driving), and the extra exertion will help use up any extra calories (or carbs) that you may eat. 

Lastly, one of the advertised benefits of IMO is possible prebiotic activity. Prebiotics are critical, as they feed the beneficial bacteria in our digestive system, specifically in the large intestine. These bacteria have several amazing functions, such as lowering body fat, improving insulin sensitivity, and lowering depression. Two “gold standard” prebiotics in the industry are inulin and fructooligosaccharides (FOS). Inulin and FOS are non-digestible carbohydrates that robustly increase beneficial bacteria. The challenge, however, is that both inulin and FOS, due to their rapid digestibility by intestinal bacteria, result in low gastric tolerance, and, ultimately, gastric distress. Additionally, inulin and FOS, when added to protein bars or other goods, may degrade over time into individual sugar units. Regardless, one study comparing inulin to IMOs, found that the prebiotic activity in inulin is 14 times greater than that of IMOs.[4] This is logical because, as you recall from above, approximately 70% to 90% of IMOs are digested. As such, only a small portion of these prebiotic fibers make it to the large intestine, in which two out of three studies have demonstrated that this small portion may indeed have some prebiotic effects.
Coconut is an excellent high-fat source of fiber. Did you know that coconut actually has 4-to-6 times the amount of fiber as oat bran? A cup of coconut contains about 7 grams of fiber, along with omega-6 fatty acids, manganese, folate and selenium. When it comes to keto fiber foods, you can eat coconut flakes, coconut chips, coconut flour and coconut oil, too.

Whisk 1 cup of the warmed nut milk into the yolk mixture. Then add back into the remaining nut milk in the saucepan. Stir until combined. Continue cooking over low heat until the mixture has thickened and reach about 165 degrees and will coat the back of a spoon. Don’t boil or overcook or else your eggs will curdle. If the eggs do curdle, you can strain the mixture to get rid of the curdled chunks.

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) advises getting 25 to 31 g of fiber a day, depending on age and gender. Following a keto diet food list doesn’t mean it’s impossible to get what you need, but you have to remain diligent and determined to make it happen, says Keri Glassman, RD, who is in private practice in New York City. There are many fiber-rich foods that contain a low amount of net carbs (total carbs minus fiber) and that won’t kick you out of ketosis — which is the metabolic state that makes keto work. Here are 10:
There are two general categories of dietary fiber: soluble and insoluble. Fibrous foods typically contain both soluble and insoluble fibers. As a society, we understand the importance of fiber, including the benefits related to lowering body fat, decreasing the prevalence of diabetes, improving insulin sensitivity, decreasing the risk of heart disease and increasing satiety, as well as the beneficial bacteria in our digestive system.[1] Unfortunately, less than 5% of Americans actually meet the 30 gram per day recommended intake. To help increase fiber consumption, an increasing number of companies have developed a host of delicious, low-carb, high-fiber treats. Despite this, it is important to understand how our bodies process two of the most common “fibers” on the market that are used in these treats: isomaltooligosaccharides (IMOs) and soluble corn fiber (SCF).

There are two general categories of dietary fiber: soluble and insoluble. Fibrous foods typically contain both soluble and insoluble fibers. As a society, we understand the importance of fiber, including the benefits related to lowering body fat, decreasing the prevalence of diabetes, improving insulin sensitivity, decreasing the risk of heart disease and increasing satiety, as well as the beneficial bacteria in our digestive system.[1] Unfortunately, less than 5% of Americans actually meet the 30 gram per day recommended intake. To help increase fiber consumption, an increasing number of companies have developed a host of delicious, low-carb, high-fiber treats. Despite this, it is important to understand how our bodies process two of the most common “fibers” on the market that are used in these treats: isomaltooligosaccharides (IMOs) and soluble corn fiber (SCF).
First off, there’s the taste. Consumers want to have their cake and eat it too. At the end of the day, if the sweet indulgence tastes more like a bar of chalk, then there is a high probability that consumers will not be running out to buy it. In my opinion, most companies have nailed this aspect down to some degree. The majority of bars, cookies, or other low-carb snacks that I have tried actually taste really good. However, even if a product can meet the consumer standards with respect to taste and quality, the true separation occurs at the level of fiber source. The buzz words “high-fiber” and “low net carbs” are exploding in today’s society. Thus, companies are attempting to find ways in which they can add fiber to their products, thereby boosting their nutritional profile and simultaneously decreasing the number of net carbs. This now prompts the question: are all fiber sources nutritionally the same, and if not, what does this mean for the consumer?
A close relative of maltose is a molecule known as isomaltose (typically found in items such as beer and honey). The biggest difference between maltose and isomaltose is that isomaltose is joined together by an α-1,6 chemical bond, rather than an α-1,4 chemical bond. Scientists suspected that by adding a certain enzyme (transglucosidase) to high maltose syrup, they could change the bonds from α-1,4 to α-1,6, thereby making it more resistant to being broken down by the enzymes, as described above, when compared to maltose. Again, while this sounds excellent in theory, it is not necessarily what happens in our bodies. In fact, isomaltose (and thus, IMO syrups used in some of these products) is broken down by certain enzymes on the brush border of the small intestine.[2] Though the α-1,6 bond breaks down slower compared to the α-1,4 bond, these IMO syrups, which often use a blend of di-and oligosaccharides, ultimately metabolize into small amounts of glucose and maltose[2] and thus should be viewed as a slow digesting carbohydrate rather than a true fiber.

The increased awareness regarding the importance of fiber, in addition to its distinct metabolic effects, has resulted in a surge of companies switching to an alternative fiber known as soluble corn fiber (SCF). Interestingly, SCF has been available on the US market since 2007 and is used in foods and beverages across the Americas, Europe, and Southeast Asia. SCF is produced through an extensive process: corn syrup is exposed to a suite of enzymes for at least 48 hours, some of which are found in the brush border of your small intestine, as well as the pancreas.[5] Notably, a large majority of the corn syrup contains easily digestible carbohydrates; however, a small portion is, in fact, not digestible. At the end of this enzymatic exposure, a stream of digestion-resistant carbohydrates remains and is subsequently filtered several times. The resulting product is a “true fiber” that contains a mixture of α-1,6, α-1,4, α-1,2, and α-1,3 glucosidic linkages, which, as mentioned above, contribute to its low digestibility.
The increased awareness regarding the importance of fiber, in addition to its distinct metabolic effects, has resulted in a surge of companies switching to an alternative fiber known as soluble corn fiber (SCF). Interestingly, SCF has been available on the US market since 2007 and is used in foods and beverages across the Americas, Europe, and Southeast Asia. SCF is produced through an extensive process: corn syrup is exposed to a suite of enzymes for at least 48 hours, some of which are found in the brush border of your small intestine, as well as the pancreas.[5] Notably, a large majority of the corn syrup contains easily digestible carbohydrates; however, a small portion is, in fact, not digestible. At the end of this enzymatic exposure, a stream of digestion-resistant carbohydrates remains and is subsequently filtered several times. The resulting product is a “true fiber” that contains a mixture of α-1,6, α-1,4, α-1,2, and α-1,3 glucosidic linkages, which, as mentioned above, contribute to its low digestibility.
One of the first studies to examine IMO syrups[2] had six subjects consume 25 grams of IMO syrup. These researchers found that glucose levels increased from 109 mg/dL pre-ingestion to a peak of 136 mg/dL 30 min post-ingestion. Additionally, insulin rose to nearly parallel levels with that of glucose from 4.8 μU/mL pre-ingestion to nearly 32 μU/mL at 30 min post-ingestion. These values clearly indicate that some digestion is occurring. Furthermore, these researchers found that IMO was about 83% as digestible as maltose under resting conditions and about 69% as digestible after the exercise period. Taken together, this suggests that a large majority of the carbohydrate in the IMO syrup was, in fact, digested, absorbed, and metabolized.

To figure out the correct amount of fiber for your body, try experimenting. If you’re on the keto diet, start with 15-20 grams of total dietary fiber per day from a mix of soluble and insoluble fiber for several weeks, then consider adding 3-5 grams at a time as needed to see how you feel. Remember that some people actually feel worse when they boost their fiber intake[*][*][*].
 Nutrition DataMacros are provided as a courtesy and should not be construed as a guarantee. This information is calculated using MyFitnessPal.com. To obtain the most accurate nutritional information in a given recipe, you should calculate the nutritional information with the actual ingredients used in your recipe, using your preferred nutrition calculator. You are solely responsible for ensuring that any nutritional information provided is accurate, complete, and useful. 

Even so, keto followers may experience a rise in LDL cholesterol, sometimes called “bad” cholesterol because too much of it can lead to a buildup of plaque in the arteries, which can increase the risk of heart disease. And that’s where fiber can help. However, many high-fiber foods, like beans, fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, and whole grains, are also high in carbs, so they're limited on the keto diet.
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